TWI Job Safety (JS)


Training Within Industry Job Safety (TWI JS) teaches supervisors how to engage employees in improving the safety of their working conditions. Frontline workers will learn how to analyze hazardous situations and break the chain of causation that leads to accidents. TWI Job Safety keeps workers safe, happy, and compliant with OSHA and EPA regulations.


Training Within Industry was created by the U.S. War Manpower Commission in 1940 to address the shortage of trained and skilled personnel during WWII, particularly in the manufacturing sector. The main focuses were TWI Job InstructionJob Methods, and Job Relations. Job Safety is notably absent.

Post WWII, countries in Europe and Asia used TWI to aid reconstruction efforts. In Japan, this inspired Kaizen and the Toyota Production System, which includes Toyota Kata. During this time, Japan developed TWI Job Safety, modeled after many of the same methods and concepts in other TWI courses.

Today, lean manufacturing and operational excellence programs world wide frequently use TWI Job Safety.

Job Safety is a Systematic Approach

80% of all accidents can be prevented through training. The goal is zero incidents and injuries. Only a proactive workplace can achieve this goal.

Job Safety (JS) teaches supervisors to instruct employees in preventive measures that, through practice, can help reduce incidents and improve overall work quality.

Every accident is a result of The Incident Chain

Indirect Causes > Direct Causes > Safety Incidents > Accidents

Each link in the chain leads to the next. Indirect Causes are many and varied. They can be Cultural, Personal, or Physical, including everything from inadequate safety policies and a culture of inattention to excessive working hours or poor emotional states. Indirect Causes will create opportunities for Direct Causes.

Direct Causes are the actions and conditions that cause a safety incident. Poor lighting, improper machine use, and a lack of safety devices are all Direct Causes. Safety Incidents and Accidents are bound to occur when Indirect and Direct Causes are left unaddressed.

The Job Safety (JS) training method teaches supervisors to analyze the events leading to accidents and hazardous situations. Establishing countermeasures will "break the chain" before incidents and damage occur.

The 4 Step Method for TWI Job Safety


Identify the Causes of Danger

  • Look at the record, the situation, and the individuals involved.
  • Check pertinent standards and regulations.
  • Foresee the risks of safety incidents, accidents, and injuries.
  • Talk with employees to get their opinions and feelings.


Decide on Countermeasures

  • Understand how each cause interplays with others.
  • Get help from people who have detailed knowledge of the situation.
  • Think of several countermeasures, including back-ups.
  • Check that your decisions are in alignment with policies, regulations and standards.


Enforce Countermeasures

  • Decide who needs to enact specific countermeasures.
  • Get help from others, such as supervisors, if necessary.
  • Ensure that you put the countermeasures in place.


Check the Results

  • Determine when you'll check up on the results.
  • Watch for changes in output, attitudes, and relationships.
  • Ask others if the countermeasures were successful, and any other effects they may have had.

Employee Engagement Makes the Difference

Feelings and attitudes contribute to the physical causes of accidents. JS stresses that the supervisor-employee relationship is pivotal in fostering a safe and environmentally responsible workplace. Engaging employees is critical in identifying and eliminating potential hazards.

TWI prioritizes Job Safety in its "Five Needs" model, utilizing skills from Job Relations (JR), Job Methods (JM), and Job Instruction (JI).

Training Within Industry Job Safety Benefits

Accidents cause injuries, damage to equipment, scrap, lost time, and decreased morale 

Companies that use JS training experience: Lower Incidence Rates, Better Morale, Less Downtime, Improved Safety Records, and Better Inspection Results.